a measure of the number and variety of different species found in a given area.
Species diversity is the number of different species that are represented in a given community (a dataset). The effective number of species refers to the number of equally abundant species needed to obtain the same mean proportional species abundance as that observed in the dataset of interest (where all species may not be equally abundant). Species diversity consists of three components: species richness, taxonomic or phylogenetic diversity and species evenness. Species richness is a simple count of species, taxonomic or phylogenetic diversity is the genetic relationship between different groups of species,whereas species evenness quantifies how equal the abundances of the species are.