analysis of soil to determine pH. mineral composition. structure. salinity. and other characteristics.

soil analysis (Wikipedia)
A horticulture student taking a soil sample in a garden near Lawrenceville, Georgia

Soil test may refer to one or more of a wide variety of soil analysis conducted for one of several possible reasons. Possibly the most widely conducted soil tests are those done to estimate the plant-available concentrations of plant nutrients, in order to determine fertilizer recommendations in agriculture. Other soil tests may be done for engineering (geotechnical), geochemical or ecological investigations.

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