movement of water through the soil (contrast with infiltration).

percolation (Wikipedia)
In coffee percolation, soluble compounds leave the coffee grounds and join the water to form coffee. Insoluble compounds (and granulates) remain within the coffee filter.

In physics, chemistry and materials science, percolation (from Latin percōlāre, "to filter" or "trickle through") refers to the movement and filtering of fluids through porous materials. Broader applications have since been developed that cover connectivity of many systems modeled as lattices or graphs, analogous to connectivity of lattice components in the filtration problem that modulates capacity for percolation.

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