small solids suspended in air that are generated by combustion of fossil fuels. construction and demolition. industrial processes. soil tillage and erosion. and complex reactions between sunlight and gaseous pollutants. Associated with respiratory and cardiopulmonary diseases and cancer.

particulates (Wikipedia)

This diagram shows types, and size distribution in micrometres, of atmospheric particulate matter
This animation shows aerosol optical thickness of emitted and transported key tropospheric aerosols from 17 August 2006 to 10 April 2007, from a 10 km resolution GEOS-5 "nature run" using the GOCART model. (click for more detail)
* green: black and organic carbon
* red/orange: dust
* white: sulfates
* blue: sea salt
Movie map of distribution of aerosol particles, based on data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite.
* Green areas show aerosol plumes dominated by larger particles.
* Red areas show aerosol plumes dominated by small particles.
* Yellow areas show where large and small aerosol particles are mixing.
* Gray shows where the sensor did not collect data.

Atmospheric aerosol particles – also known as atmospheric particulate matter, particulate matter (PM), particulates, or suspended particulate matter (SPM) – are microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in the atmosphere of Earth. The term aerosol commonly refers to the particulate/air mixture, as opposed to the particulate matter alone. Sources of particulate matter can be natural or anthropogenic. They have impacts on climate and precipitation that adversely affect human health, in addition to direct inhalation.

Subtypes of atmospheric particles include suspended particulate matter (SPM), thoracic and respirable particles, inhalable coarse particles, which are coarse particles with a diameter between 2.5 and 10 micrometers (μm) (PM10), fine particles with a diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5),ultrafine particles, and soot.

The IARC and WHO designate airborne particulates a Group 1 carcinogen. Particulates are the most harmful form of air pollution due to their ability to penetrate deep into the lungs and blood streams unfiltered, causing permanent DNA mutations, heart attacks, respiratory disease, and premature death. In 2013, a study involving 312,944 people in nine European countries revealed that there was no safe level of particulates and that for every increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM10, the lung cancer rate rose 22%. The smaller PM2.5 were particularly deadly, with a 36% increase in lung cancer per 10 μg/m3 as it can penetrate deeper into the lungs. Worldwide exposure to PM2.5 contributed to 4.1 million deaths from heart disease and stroke, lung cancer, chronic lung disease, and respiratory infections in 2016. Overall, ambient particulate matter ranks as the sixth leading risk factor for premature death globally.

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