process in the development of cells in which they become specialized for various functions.

Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
differentiation (noun)
the act or process of - differentiating
development from the one to the many, the simple to the complex, or the homogeneous to the heterogeneous
a) modification of body parts for performance of particular functions
b) the sum of the processes whereby apparently indifferent or unspecialized cells, tissues, and structures attain their adult form and function
the processes by which various rock types are produced from a common magma
differentiation (Wikipedia)

Differentiation may refer to:

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