Are tools required in checking the lower trunk, root collar and individual roots of trees?

Yes, root excavation with appropriate tools (e.g. handheld adze, digger, air spade, etc.) may be required to expose the root collar and roots. The exposed root collar and roots could subsequently be examined for the typical signs of BRR disease. Scraping off of bark tissue should only be conducted on decayed, damaged or dead wood/roots. …

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Elaborate on the typical signs of BRR disease to look for at the lower trunk, root collar and individual roots of the trees

The typical signs of BRR disease are a) fruiting bodies of Phellinus noxius, b) mycelial encrustation, c) soil aggregates and d) mycelial nets. (a) The appearance, on lower trunk or roots, of brownish-black/dark greyish-brown colored imbricate or resupinate fruiting bodies of Phellinus noxius with their characteristic porous hymenium surface up-facing is an obvious sign of …

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What are the geographical ranges of BRR disease?

The disease is prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions in different part of the world and has been found in Asian countries & regions such as Japan, Mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore as well as Central America, Africa and Oceania.

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